Soil and Hydro-Ecological Characteristics
Calamba with its vast area consists of seven (7) different soil types showing different characteristics. The study of soil types is necessary to determine correctly the suitability crops in the locality. 

Lipa series are residual soils derived from volcanic tuff, light brown and moderately friable clay loam to loamy textures. It gives favorable external drainage but fairly favorable when it comes to internal drainage. 

Calumpang clay is alluvial. It overlays highly weathered tuff materials with solum that extends to about 150 centimeters deep. It has been found to have good external drainage but the fine clayfish texture tends to hamper favorable internal drainage. This type is best suited for lowlands rice but not recommended for diversified crops due to drainage problems. 

Maculod series are also residual soils originated from igneous basalt rocks with a dark grayish brown color and slightly compact, granular clay loam of about 50-70 centimeters deep overlaying weathered basalt rocks subsoil. Imbedded ground lenses could be detected sometimes in its profile. This type can be found in the rolling areas around the foot of Mount Makiling. 

Dominant Soil in Calamba

Lipa loam is a dominant type of soil in Calamba comprising a total of 5,733.73 hectares or 54 % of the total 10,568 hectares excluding Canlubang area. See Soil Distribution table.

Land Capability
Land capability classification is determined by its physical attributes such as soil properties, slopes, degree of erosion, drainage, and flooding hazards and its chemical properties. 

Moderately good land dominates among classes of land capability in Calamba with 2,825.94 hectares or 27% of the total 10,568 hectares. See Land Classification table.

Erosion Potential
Erosion is the group of natural processes including weathering dissolution, abrasion, and transportation by which earthly and rock material are removed from any part of the earth's surface. 

No apparent erosion dominates the class of erosion potential in the town with 3,965 hectares or 38% of the total covered area. See various degree of erosion per barangay.

Area Devoted to Crops
The total effective agricultural area in 1996 was 2,418.17 hectares (17% of the total land area) while the area devoted to diversified planting and livestock production is 1,451.25 hectares. 

Lowland areas are predominantly planted to rice, with an average area of 966.89 hectares. These ricelands are located in the different lowland barangays such as San Cristobal, Banlic, Lecheria, San Jose and Banadero. 

Source: Grolier's Lands and People

The upland areas are devoted to diversified crops such as vegetables, rootcrops, fruits, and commercial crops like coffee, coconut and sugar cane. An estimated average area of 1,451.28 hectares were allocated to diversified cropping. 

An average area of 792.31 hectares is planted with vegetable. They are usually grown in upland areas like Bunggo, Hornalan, Burol, Kay-Anlog and Portions of Makiling and Lamesa. 

On the other hand, an average area of 104.96 hectares are allocated to planting rootcrops and 479.66 hectares to commercial crops. 

Practically, Calamba is predominantly sugar cane area (402.76 hectares) but production decreased somehow due to a number of reasons. This is largely grown in barangay Canlubang, Palo-Alto, Prinza, Kay-Anlog, Punta and Prinza. 

Coffee and fruit trees (76.9 hectares) is usually grown in the hilly part of Mabato, Hornalan and Bunggo. For productive land use it is intercropped with fruit trees such as pineapple, papaya, guava, banana and avocadoes.

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