He was shot in Bagumbayan by his former comrades-in-arms in the Spanish infantry. He is now known as one of the 13 martyrs of Bagumbayan.

Date of Birth: Unrecorded
Place of Birth: Unrecorded
Date of Death: January 11, 1897

Values Exhibited:

Learning Message:

Matamis ang magbuwis ng buhay para sa lupang tinubuan. (It is sweet to give one's life to the native land.)

Harapin ng buong tapang ang kamatayang dulot ng pagmamahal sa bayan. (Face courageously the death that comes from love of country.)


It was through his initiative that the revolutionary government set up the Universidad Cientifico-Literaria de Filipinas, where he taught law.

He was a member of the Malolos Congress and a signatory of the Malolos Constitution. After the Filipino-American War, he became the first civilian mayor of Manila.

He was one of the lawyers who represented T.M. Kalawa and Fidel A. Reyes in the celebrated libel case of the El Renacimiento.

Date of Birth: December 14, 1863
Place of Birth: Manila
Date of Death: April 8, 1917

Values Exhibited:
  Love of learning

Learning Message:

Maging tulad ng kawayan -- yumuyuko kapag malakas ang unos upang makatayo uli nang buo pagkatapos ng masamang panahon. (Be like the bamboo -- it bends at the height of the storm, so it can stand whole once again after the bad weather.)

Alamin mo ang iyong kahinaan upang mapangibabawan mo ito. (Know your weaknes, so you can overcome it.)

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From the Centennial Resource Book: Ang mga Pilipino sa Ating Kasaysayan.
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